Dr. Mengele's "Medical Experiments" on Twins in the Birkenau Gypsy Camp

Published: 2013-12-01
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1. The “crimes” of Dr. Mengele

In 1997, Helena Kubica, researcher at the Auschwitz Museum, published a long article entitled “Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau” (“Dr. Mengele and His Crimes in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp”).[1] The author sifted through the numerous documents on Dr. Mengele’s activities at Birkenau preserved in the archives of the Museum in search of documentary proof of his presumed criminal medical experiments on twins. The situation is as follows.

Dr. Josef Mengele entered service at Auschwitz on 30 May 1943. His direct superior, SS-Standortarzt (garrison doctor) Dr. Eduard Wirts, appointed him Lagerarzt (camp doctor) at the so-called “Zigeunerfamilienlager” (gypsy family camp), Sector BIIe of Birkenau.[2]

He was particularly interested in the study of twins, especially identical twins, organising a daycare center solely for this purpose:

“In the gypsy camp, he caused Barracks 29 and 31 and a nursery – a sort of daycare center and preparatory school – to house not only the children under his observation (these lived in Barracks 31), but all gypsy children up to 6 years of age.

A total of several hundred children were housed in the nursery school from 8 to 14 years of age, where they were supervised by many prisoners. [...]. The barracks used as a nursery school were in slightly better condition than the others, entirely plastered on the inside, decorated with coloured images representing fairy tales. For a short time, the children who lived there received a better diet – milk, white bread, vegetables and meat broth concentrates, even marmalade and chocolate [...].

The area behind Barracks 31 was enclosed and a playground was installed, with sandboxes, merry-go-round, swings and gymnastic equipment.”[3]

Naturally, for H. Kubica, all this was intended solely for “propaganda purposes.”[4] We need only inquire, however, for whom this alleged propaganda was intended, since not even the delegate from the Red Cross who visited Auschwitz in September 1944 was permitted to visit Birkenau Camp.[5]

And how about the diet, incredibly rich for a concentration camp – as confirmed by former inmate Anna Lipka[6] – was this also solely intended for “propaganda purposes”?

This scene is not easy to reconcile with the panoply of the unprecedented crimes attributed to Dr. Mengele, but Kubica has decisive “proof” to hand.

An epidemic of noma faciei, a gangrenous illness affecting mostly children, broke out in the Zigeunerlager in the summer of 1943. The patients were transferred on Dr. Mengele’s order to an isolated barracks in the hospital of the gypsy camp and, we are assured by H. Kubica,

“many of the sick children were killed, always by order of Dr. Mengele, and their bodies were taken to the institute of hygiene of the Waffen-SS at Rajsko for histopathological research. There preparations of the individual organs were prepared and preserved in glass, even including the entire head of a child, among others, for the SS academy of medicine in Graz.”[7]

From the pertinent footnote, we learn that our information on the entire affair is based exclusively on post-war testimonies. In this context, the author mentions a single document, reproduced below. The document is a bill of lading to the Institute of Hygiene of the Waffen-SS (SS-Hygiene-Institut) of Rajsko, Hygiene and Bacteriology Section, relating to the “head of a cadaver” (Kopf einer Leiche) taken from a “12-year old child” (12-jähriges Kind). Nothing is known of the cause of death of the child; the only thing that is certain is that the request for histological examination originated from the H-Krankenbau Zigeunerlager Auschwitz II, BIIe, that is, the prisoner hospital of the gypsy camp. The explanation advanced by H. Kubica is clearly a pretext. Noma faciei (or cancrum oris) is a disease which destroys the orofacial tissues. It currently strikes chiefly sub-Saharan African children between the ages of 2 and 16; the mortality rate, in the absence of adequate treatment, ranges between 70 and 90%.[8] One may therefore reasonably suppose that, at Birkenau, in the years 1943-1944, the mortality rate of young gypsy children stricken with noma was even higher. In 1943, 2,587 children below the age of 10 in the gypsy camp died,[9] including practically all those suffering from noma.

Mengele Document

A bill of lading to the Institute of Hygiene of the Waffen-SS (SS-Hygiene-Institut) of Rajsko, Hygiene and Bacteriology Section, relating to the “head of a cadaver” (Kopf einer Leiche) taken from a “12-year old child” (12-jähriges Kind)\.

But then, what occasion was there to kill children who were inexorably dying of disease?

The obvious response to this rhetorical question is supplied by H. Kubica herself where she cites the testimony of Dr. Jan Čespiva, who had worked as a physician in the gypsy camp hospital:

“There was an outbreak of noma. The disease caused entire pieces of flesh to fall off, also affecting the lower jaw. I had never seen gangrene of the face like that. The crania of the children were prepared for the SS Academy at Graz. I know because we wrote the address. The heads were preserved in formaldehyde, the bodies were destroyed in Crematory III.”[10]

It is therefore obvious that the child in question died of noma and that the German physicians hoped to find a cure by studying the heads of children who had died of this disease.

And this request for histological examination is the only documentary “proof” of the “crimes” of Dr. Mengele to be found in the archive of the Auschwitz Museum! Not much for the so-called “Angel of Death” of Auschwitz, and H. Kubica, apparently aware of this, as a last resort cites the “eyewitness” so decisive to her, Miklos Nyiszli, about whom, more below.

After creating the school already mentioned above, Dr. Mengele created an “experimental laboratory,” the location where the “camp research on the birth of twins and congenital anomalies”[11] was performed – in a word, the ogre’s lair – to the head of which he appointed Dr. Bertold Epstein, from Prague. His assistant was another Czech, Dr. Rudolf Weiskopf (Vitek).[12] Two camp inmates also worked in Dr. Mengele’s laboratory: a Polish anthropology Ph.D., Martyna Puzina,[13] and the Czech painter Dinah Gottliebova, who produced drawings of the parts of the body of the children under examination.[14]

The activities of this “experimental laboratory” are well documented:

“The archives of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum contain numerous documents signed by Dr. Mengele, such as requests for analysis by the Institute of Hygiene.”[15]

but no document attests to Dr. Mengele’s presumed crimes. This is not at all surprising, considering the activities performed in his laboratory:

“As shown by reports of inmates who performed tasks in the twins block, as well as reports from the twins themselves, the individual pairs of twins were subjected by Dr. Mengele to research of any kind, which constituted the starting point for the performance of the most varied types of experiments on the same. In general, they were subjected to anthropometric, morphological, psychiatric and radiological research. The anthropological research was initially performed in Dr. Mengele’s laboratory in the sauna of the gypsy camp. In November 1944, this laboratory was transferred to barracks 15, in the vicinity of the men’s hospital (BIIf). Every individual part of the body of the persons subjected to examination was measured in the most accurate manner: the twins were measured in pairs, comparing the results. The documentation contained annotations of the shape of the mouth, the nose, the muscles of the ears, the colour of the eyes and skin of the individual parts of the body.[16]

There was no criminal activity, therefore, and it is easy to see what M. Puzyna and D. Gottliebova’s tasks consisted of: anthropometrical studies and anatomical drawings.

H. Kubica adds:

“All the documentation, that is, photographs, drawings, descriptions and analytical results, were preserved in individual folders for every person examined,”[17 ]

and she published a few of these documents. Notwithstanding this abundant documentation, H. Kubica notes:

“Nevertheless, unfortunately, it has not been possible to find any document showing how many gypsy twins passed through Dr. Mengele’s laboratory.”[18]

But a few pages later, the Polish researcher states:

“The Archives of the State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau also contain a document which contains personal data and copies of anthropological studies on 295 inmates – Greek, Hungarian, Dutch, French and Italian Jews – upon whom Mengele performed experiments. This list also contains the names of 117 Hungarian Jewish pairs of twins in the women’s sector of the camp. As for male twins from Barracks 15 of Camp BIIf, we know from the report on one pair of twins that there were 107 of them, aged from age 4 to 60.”[19]

Thus, the total number of documented twins available to Dr. Mengele amounted to between 402 and 412. What happened to them?

A series of daily reports, not mentioned by H. Kubica, although they can be found precisely at the Auschwitz Museum, the Arbeitseinsatz (assignment of labour) of the Birkenau camp,[20] reports starting from 28 July up to 3 October 1944 (the reports are complete only for the month of August) bears the heading “Zwillinge für Versuchzwecke” (twins for experimental purposes). In the 35 reports which are preserved, the number of these inmates never varies: it always reads 49. This absence of variation over a period of more than three months allows one to rule out any continual replacement of “guinea pigs”, and is fully compatible with the “anthropometric, morphological, psychiatric and radiological examinations” mentioned above.

H. Kubica, by contrast, claims that the fate of these twins was quite a different one:

“The last stop in the search for several pairs of twins or individual persons was the analysis of the individual organs of the body during the autopsy. To this end, these persons were killed at Dr. Mengele’s order or by Dr. Mengele himself, by an injection of phenol in the heart. The bodies were taken to the dissecting room.”[21]

At this point, the Polish researcher unveils her “decisive witness”: none other than the notorious impostor Miklos Nyiszli! The whole fable of Dr. Mengele’s “crimes” originates from the ravings of this mythomaniac, to whom I shall return in greater detail in the section below devoted to him.

Notwithstanding the absurd lies he told, this person is nonetheless held in high esteem in the official historiography, but, in a sort of veiled schizophrenia, only as regards his accusations against Dr. Mengele. And in fact, his testimony constitutes the “demonstrative” framework for the accusations of every book on the subject, starting with Gerald L. Posner and John Ware on Dr. Mengele,[22] one of the most important, also mentioned by H. Kubica. The two authors cite him on pages 19, 20, 26, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 53 and 152. In fact, the entire chapter on the “crimes” of Dr. Mengele at Auschwitz is built upon Nyiszli’s “testimony”! Even Robert Jay Lifton mentions him repeatedly.[23] H. Kubica cites him just as often. She even reproduces his photograph[24] and cites him several times.[25]

But Dr. Mengele’s “crimes” are not only not attested to by one single document: they are even overtly disproven by absolutely indisputable facts. In his description of the first autopsy allegedly performed by him upon a pair of twins, Nyiszli writes:

“My legs are trembling with excitement. I have discovered the most monstrous secret of Third Reich medical science. They don’t only kill with gas; they kill with chloroform injections to the heart as well.”[26]

If this had been true, Dr. Mengele would have proceeded to liquidate all the witnesses of his alleged criminal activity – his collaborators who also worked with twins – before leaving Auschwitz on 17 January 1945. He had enough time! But he allowed all the “eyewitnesses” of his alleged crimes to survive, i.e.:

  • Dr. Bertold Epstein, one of the signers of the famous appeal by former Auschwitz inmates dated 4 March 1945;[27]
  • Dr. Rudolf Weisskopf, liberated from Bergen-Belsen;[28]
  • Martyna Puzyna, interviewed by G.L.Posner and J. Ware in June 1985;[29]
  • Dinah Gottliebova, who moved to the USA in 1947, where she still lives;[30]
  • Miklos Nyiszli, the purported essential “witness”, who, in his capacity as the physician of the so-called crematory “Sonderkommando,” would have shared in the “terrible secret” of the mass gassings, was also casually allowed to survive!

But what about the twins? What happened to the victims of Dr. Mengele’s experiments? Were they all killed en masse? Quite the contrary!

H. Kubica informs us that, in 1984, these twins were still numerous enough to form their own association:

“In 1984, the victims of Dr. Mengele’s experiments, who had lived in the children’s camp, formed the organisation Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiment Survivors (CANDLES ), with the self-appointed task of documenting Mengele’s crimes, informing the world, capturing the “Angel of Death” and dragging him before a court”[31]

The Website of the association lists almost 400 twins from Auschwitz.[32] H. Kubica also presents a list of twins from Auschwitz, consisting of over 320 names.[33] The great majority of them were twins, but some were merely siblings, such as the sisters Tatiana Liliana and Alessandra Bucci. Both were deported to Auschwitz on 29 March 1943. The first, born on 19 September 1937, was registered under number 76484; the second, born 1 July 1939, was registered under number 6483.[34] Luigi Ferri, born on 9 September 1932, was deported in August 1944 and registered under number B-7525.[35] Sergio De Simone, born at Naples on 29 November 1937, was deported to Auschwitz on 29 March 1944, at the age of nearly 7 years, and registered under number 179614.[36]

No official historian has yet succeeded in explaining why these children were not gassed immediately upon arrival. In reality, it is not so surprising, because on 16 January 1945, in just the men’s camp at Birkenau, there were 770 “Jugendliche bis 18. Jhr.” (youths aged up to 18 years), in addition to 400 “Invaliden” (invalids)![37] When the Soviets arrived, there were still 205 children at Birkenau, from just a few months up to 15 years of age, many of them twins.[38]

The three documents mentioned above, the list of the CANDLES organisation, the list compiled by H. Kubica and the Soviet list of 1945, in addition to the Soviet list of inmates liberated at Birkenau,[39] permit the compilation of a list of 543 twins having passed through Auschwitz:[40] of these, 376 survived until the liberation of the camp; four died in the following months, one died on the evacuation transport on 27 January 1945 and twelve perished during the existence of the camp. Nothing is known of the remaining 154.

In just three cases, H. Kubica notes: «Starb im Lager infolge der durchgeführten Experimente» (“died [not: killed] in the camp as a result of the experiments performed [on them],”[41] so that these three would seem to constitute Dr. Mengele’s victims. It goes without saying that such an assumption is in no way backed up by proof of Mengele's personal complicity.

In conclusion, the known facts are as follows:

Dr. Mengele’s alleged crimes are not proven by any document. No document shows that Mengele ever killed even one single child, or that one single child was ever killed on his orders. The essential and sole witness, the one upon whose testimony the whole accusation is based, was an extraordinarily creative impostor. Dr. Mengele’s closest collaborators, including the presumed essential witness, and at least 543 of his “victims” were allowed to live: but how, then, are we to believe seriously in the fairy tale of the “Angel of Death” of Auschwitz?

Dr. Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele (1911-1979), German physician and SS Hauptsturmführer. Photo taken by a police photographer in 1956 in Buenos Aires for Mengele's Argentine identification document
[Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

2. Miklos Nyiszli’s False Testimony

In an article on Dr. Mengele published in 1986,[42] Zdenek Zofka discussed the quality of the anti-Mengele testimony, writing:

“The Mengele phenomenon presents a few mysteries. The available sources are few. Almost all the written notes capable of providing information on Mengele’s crimes at Auschwitz have been destroyed. We must have recourse almost exclusively to eyewitness testimonies. [But] testimonies, forty years later,[43] are always problematical – all the more so in an extreme case such as this one. In the minds of many former inmates, “harrowing reality and nightmares have inextricably merged together over a period of forty years.” All too often, it is impossible to be sure that their recollections really refer to Mengele at all: it is all too often possible to show that Mengele has been confused with other SS physicians. Almost all the inmates state that they were selected by Mengele on the ramp. But camp physicians performed the selections in shifts: Mengele performed no more selections than any of the others. One gets the impression that Mengele’s name has gotten separated from his person. For the inmates, he became synonymous with all Auschwitz camp physicians as such.”[44]

Zofka then added:

“As has already been stated, the testimonies against Mengele must be treated with great caution. A number of incorrect statements can be explained on the grounds of mistaken identity, in which Mengele had gotten confused with other camp physicians or SS guards. Some witnesses in their statements were certainly motivated by self-importance and attention-seeking. Finally, even certain ‘exaggerations’ can be explained as innocent attempts to communicate and render the atrocity that was Auschwitz understandable – at least to a certain extent – to persons living later who hadn’t experienced it. Since Mengele was never tried, it has not been possible to put individual witnesses to the test. Even at the Mengele trial in Jerusalem in February 1985, rigorous cross-examination was waived for psychological reasons which were, after all, only too understandable – the need to recall to mind the horrors of Auschwitz was no doubt sufficiently agonising. Nevertheless, clarification of Mengele’s crimes at Auschwitz requires a critical and detailed examination of the testimonies.”[45]

But the critical examination undertaken by the author to “assess the individual crimes attributed to Mengele as more or less probable[46] considers only obviously false, poorly supported accusations and does not in any way probe Miklos Nyiszli, whose testimony is, in the author’s view, “of fundamental importance”[47] – so much so that the author cites it repeatedly.[48]

It therefore remains only critically to assess the statements of this fundamentally important witness to the alleged crimes of Dr. Mengele.

Miklos Nyiszli wrote a memoir published in Hungarian in 1946 entitled Dr. Mengele boncolóorvosa voltam az auschwitz-i krematóriumban (I Was Dr. Mengele’s Anatomical Physician in the Auschwitz Crematorium.)[49] The work was later translated into French, German, English, Polish and Italian, rising to prominence in the Holocaust historiography of the 1960s.

Nyiszli claims that he reached Birkenau by train with a trainload of Jews deported from Hungary, in May of 1944 – May 29th, to be exact – as shown by the registration number A-8450, with which he was tattooed on that same day upon his arrival at the camp. After spending a few days in Sector BIIf of Birkenau, on 3 or 5 June (his chronology is contradictory), he was assigned as physician to Sonderkommando of the crematoria, under Dr. Mengele’s direct supervision, where he remained until January 1945. But in his sworn statement dated 8 October 1947,[50] Nyiszli asserts that he reached Auschwitz on 19 May 1944 and that he was immediately transferred to the “Buna-Monowitz” camp, where he remained between 20 May and 5 June. These two versions of his arrival at Auschwitz stand in total mutual contradiction. But this is nothing compared to the wave of contradictions, absurdities, historical falsifications and various impostures to be found in his work, which was published in Italian under the title Medico ad Auschwitz and later under a different title: Sopravvissuto a Mengele:[51] in my cursory study dedicated to this self-proclaimed “eyewitness”, I listed 120 of them.[52]

Let us now summarise the most salient of these nonsensical claims.[53]

Nyiszli provides a completely invented history of the Birkenau crematoria, even stating that they were built during the winter of 1939-1940, when Auschwitz didn’t even exist yet.

His description of the ovens of Crematoria II and III (which he refers to as 1 and 2) is also completely afactual. He speaks, in fact, of 15 individual furnaces located in a room 150 metres long, while the actual room in question was only 30 metres long, equipped with five furnaces, each with three muffles.

The alleged gas chamber, a room (Leichenkeller 1) 30 metres long, becomes, for Nyiszli, 200 metres long [but no width given]; Nyiszli also describes an “adjacent room” which never existed.

The small freight elevator (Aufzug) located in the vestibule of the subterranean part of the crematorium is transformed, in Nyiszli’s narrative, into four powerful lifts.

What Nyiszli says about the crematory capacity of the crematory ovens is technically impossible and historically nonsensical. He speaks of the cremation of 3 bodies in 20 minutes in one muffle, in each of the 15 muffles of Crematoria II and III, corresponding to a theoretical capacity of 3,240 bodies in 24 hours, which, for Nyiszli, however, becomes, incomprehensibly, 5,000. Therefore, according to him, the total capacity of the four Birkenau crematoria was 20,000 bodies per day. All this is absurd: in the coke-fired Topf ovens of Auschwitz-Birkenau, 20 minutes would not even have sufficed to vaporise the water contained in a single body. The real capacity of such installations, as declared by Topf engineer Kurt Prüfer, who designed the furnaces, and Karl Schultze, who designed the blowers, was one single body per muffle per hour, or one ninth as much as asserted by “eyewitness” Nyiszli.

Moreover, while Crematoria II and III had a total of 30 muffles, Crematoria IV and V had only 16, but Nyiszli nevertheless attributes a capacity of 5,000 bodies per day each to this pair of crematoria as well. Therefore, one single muffle in Crematoria IV-V had almost double the capacity of the same muffle in Crematoria II-III, but, according to Holocaust historiography, the furnaces in Crematoria IV and V were less efficient than those in Crematoria II and III. For example, at the Höss trial, the expert Roman Dawidowski stated that a load of 3-5 bodies in one muffle burned in 20-30 minutes in Crematoria II-III, but in 30-40 minutes in Crematoria IV-V.[54] It goes without saying that Dawidowski’s “expert opinion” has the same value as the Polish-Soviet “expert opinion” on the 4 million deaths, in which he himself, Dawidowski, likewise concurred.[55]

Based on the absurd cremation capacity of 5,000 bodies in 24 hours for each crematorium, Nyiszli has built an arithmetically fantastic history of the mass gassings. Here are a few examples:

  • The inmates in Sector BIId, 10,500 people, according to Nyiszli, were gassed and cremated in a single day in Crematoria III and IV (= 5,250 bodies in 24 hours each). In reality, even with a theoretical continuous duty cycle of 24 hours per day (which in practice is unattainable),[56] these installations would have required at least 19 days for the cremation of such a large number of bodies.
  • 4,500 gypsies were gassed and cremated in one single night in Crematoria II and III, that is, 2,250 in 12 hours. This many cremations would in fact have required over six days.
  • The 20,000 gassing victims from the ghetto of Theresienstadt were cremated in 48 hours in Crematoria II and III (= 5,000 bodies in 24 hours each). In actual fact, that many cremations would have required over 27 days.

Nyiszli claims that flames could often be seen shooting from the crematory chimneys, which is technically impossible.[57]

The gassing technique described by Nyiszli is completely invented, based on the erroneous supposition that Zyklon B (the alleged homicidal agent) was chlorine (rather than hydrocyanic acid). Since chlorine is heavier than air,[58] Nyiszli imagined that, in an area in which it was released in large quantities, the chlorine would spread from the floor to the ceiling, as if the area were being filled with water. As a result, he claims that the bodies, in the “gas chamber”, “were piled up in a mass up to the ceiling”, because “the gas first fills the lowers strata of air and then moves slowly upwards”. The victims therefore climbed on each others’ shoulders to get closer to the ceiling and escape the gas so as to survive for a short time longer. But hydrocyanic acid vapours are slightly lighter than air,[59] therefore the diffusion of the gas as described by Nyiszli is physically impossible.[60]

This absurdity was later appropriated lock, stock and barrel by the plagiarist Filip Müller, another self-described “eyewitness” who shamelessly plagiarized Nyiszli’s work.[61]

In a letter to the American translator of his memoirs, Nyiszli declared that he had discovered that the name “cyklon” (sic) was derived from the abbreviation of its principal ingredients: CYanid, ChLOr and Nitrogen, stating that there were two types of “cyklon”, Type A, which was an insecticide, and Type B, which was used for the homicidal gassings. This is another stupid fantasy. “Zyklon” in German is not an acronym, but, rather, an ordinary word meaning “cyclone”. And not only did Zyklon B not contain chlorine, but the German word for nitrogen is “Stickstoff”!

As for Zyklon A, use of this product was discontinued in Germany in the 1920s, when it was superseded by Zyklon B.

Nyiszli mentions eight extermination operations in the alleged gas chamber and in the vicinity of the “cremation pits”, at which he claims to have been personally present. Adding up the number of victims indicated by Nyiszli, we obtain a total of 605,000 persons, but he claims to have personally seen two million people enter the “gas chambers” with his own eyes. But in fact, near the “cremation pits”, the final destination for the “excess numbers from the Jewish ramp,” that is, those for whom there was no room in the over-filled gas chambers, 650,000 Jews were, according to him, killed with a bullet in the back of the neck, which is to say, that more than the total of all the gassing victims for the excess numbers of whom the “cremation pits” were supposed to have been dug in the first place. 

Based on the data provided by this “eyewitness”, we get over 30 million people, all cremated in these “cremation pits” alone!

Nyiszli’s chronology is purely fictitious, as deduced from the numerous contradictions it contains. For example, the presumed homicidal mass gassings ceased definitively on 17 November 1944, but 20,000 Jews from the ghetto of Theresienstadt were gassed, starting on that date.

One day in August, Nyiszli met his wife and daughter in Sector BIIc, but this meeting took place after the gassing of the gypsy camp (BIIe), which, for Nyiszli, occurred in the last ten days of September. What is more, according to his chronology, this meeting occurred in combination with that of Camp BIIc, and yet there was an interval of at least 26 days between the two alleged events.

Nyiszli moreover claims that the crematoria were located 2 kilometers from Birkenau camp, while in reality they were located inside the camp, and that the so-called Kanada warehouse barracks was not the Effektenlager (the camp warehouse containing the personal effects of the inmates), but, rather, a collection of rubbish which burned continuously!

In short, Nyiszli knew nothing of the alleged “Bunker 2”: according to him, this Polish farmhouse was not transformed into a homicidal gas chamber by the SS, but, rather, into an “undressing room” for the victims of the “cremation pits”, who were then killed with a pistol shot to the back of the neck.

This overall picture, although highly condensed, shows clearly that Miklos Nyiszli was a false witnesss. The Holocaust historical industry recognised this immediately, but, in a sort of “see no evil” posture, they prefer to continue utilising Nyiszli’s “testimony” in support of the alleged crimes of Dr. Mengele.

In 2002, Charles D. Provan wrote an article entitled Miklos Nyiszli and His Auschwitz Book in a New Light[62] in which, based on research considered fundamental by himself, he attempted to justify the absurdities proffered by the self-proclaimed “eyewitness” (which Provan magnanimously referred to as “errors”), asserting that Nyiszli’s book was not a historical record, but a novel. This claim is based on two erroneous assertions:

  1. that the first edition of Nyiszli’s book appeared between 16 February and 5 April 1947 in the Budapest newspaper Világ (World);
  2. that the same newspaper, in its edition of 30 September 1947, stated that Nyiszli’s book was a novel.

In reality, as I have already mentioned, Nyiszli’s first edition was published in 1946. Moreover, the newspaper Világ, mentioned by Provan, refers to Nyiszli’s book as an “élménregény”, which means, not “a novel based on one’s own personal experiences”, but, rather, “a novel of experience”, that is, a real experience so exceptional in nature as almost to resemble a novel.

That this is the correct interpretation is proven beyond doubt by the Affidavit forming the preamble to the first edition of the book:

“I, the undersigned, a doctor of medicine, Nyiszli Mikloś, ex-inmate of the concentration camp, bearer of tattoo number A 8450, in this book, which has just been published, a work which contains, in itself, the darkest pages of human history, free from all passion, without the slightest exaggeration, write as direct spectator and actor of the activities of the crematoria and funeral pyres of Auschwitz, in the fires in which [sic] millions of fathers, mothers and children disappeared.”[63]

The Affidavit closes with these words:

“Oradea-Nagyvárad, month of March, 1946. Dr. Nyiszli Mikloś.”

There is not the slightest doubt that Nyiszli described his book as an historical narrative; in fact, he explicitly stated that it was written “free from all passion, in accordance with the truth, without the slightest exaggeration”.

In this context, even if Provan’s interpretation were correct (and it is not), it would be improper to attribute greater value to the opinion of an unknown journalist writing in September 1947 than to the Affidavit of the author himself, writing in March 1946.

Therefore, the excuse that the book is a “novel” does not hold water and Nyiszli remains an impostor. This is shown no less clearly by another important fact. Provan writes:

“Although Dr. Nyiszli was sent as a witness at the IG-Farben trial at Nuremberg, he did not testify, probably because he was only at Monowitz for two weeks and could only supply information of little value. He was allowed to return to Romania during the course of the same trial.”[64]

In effect, the IG-Farben trial records contain no mention of Miklos Nyiszli being excused; he is not even mentioned.[65] Notwithstanding the simple fact that he never testified, upon returning to Romania, he immediately proceeded to write a series of articles entitled Tanu voltam Nürnbergen (I Was a Witness at Nuremberg) in which he pretended to have been interrogated by the Soviet representative of the defendant Emanuel Minskoff, quoting whole dialogues entirely invented by Nyiszli. The first of these mendacious articles appeared in the Világ newspaper on 18 April 1948.

It is impossible to ascribe good faith to this “eyewitness,” who was and remains a mere impostor.

In consequence, the essential eyewitness testimony of Dr. Mengele’s alleged crimes at Auschwitz crumbles inexorably, and the rest of the legend along with it.


Table 1 – Name Table of Children Found by the Soviets at Birkenau[66]

Registration number

Family nameGiven nameSexAgeNationalityCountry of originArrival at Auschwitz
??V.L.M10Polish 12 Aug. 1944
78254AbrahamsonHelliF10JewishHollandJune 1944
A-7739AdlerManoM12JewishHungaryMay 1944
A-26885AjzenbergJ.I.F8JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
?AltmannB.F3German June 1944
B-5405ApelbaumEdekM8JewishPolandJuly 1944
B-5406ApelbaumMilekM8JewishPolandJuly 1944
?Bauer SaryF15 HungaryJuly 1944
A-26857BeerPawlonnaF8JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
?BeinPiroskaF15Bl. 10Hungary?
A-25981BengerEvaF13JewishHungary3 Nov. 1944
B-2780BiermanEphraimM14JewishPoland2 Jul. 1944
B-14006BinetRobertM5JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-14005BinetGasparM6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-20851BinetMarthaF3JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-7199BleierEditF9JewishHungaryJuly 1944
A-12080BleierErnöM9JewishHungaryJuly 1944
B-14615BleierIstvanM14JewishHungaryBeginning of July 1944
B-13979BlumPalkoM6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-26847BlumVeraF11JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
No numberBodanskaH.G.F6 ½Polish born in the camp
?BorowskiJ.V.M3Polish 12 Oct. 1944
B-14003BraunPeterM10 monthsJewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-26840BraunJudithF11JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
76484Buci[67]LianaF7JewishItalyJune 1944
76483Buci[68]AndreaM7JewishItalyJune 1944
B-13986BurgerFranzM6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-13987BurgerThomasM11JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-7057ČengeriL.F.F7JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-7058ČengeriJ.T.F7JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-7264ChybikIlseF14JewishAustria28 Jun. 1944
?CinskJurekM6 Poland?
A-9746GermanMartaF14JewishHungary10 Jun. 1944
A-9745GermanKatalinF14JewishHungary10 Jun. 1944
A-26877DiamantEvaF12JewishHungary2 Nov. 1944
192752DontenA.R.M5Polish 12 Aug. 1944
85386DontenVaclavaF13Polish 12 Oct. 1944
A-8737Echstein (Eckstein)IlonaF9JewishHungaryJuly 1944
A-8738Echstein (Eckstein)VeraF9JewishHungaryJuly 1944
?EinesmanRozaF12?PolandAugust 1944
?EisenbergJuditF9?Czechoslova-kiaSeptember 1944
B-14706EpsteinH.M.M14 ¾JewishHungaryJune 1944
?EpsteinJamasM15Block 18Hungary 
A-7060FeketeOrlaF7JewishHungaryJune 1944
A-12089FeketeVilmosM7JewishHungaryJune 1944
A-26919FeldbaumMarianneF13JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-7525FerriLuigiM12JewishItalyAugust 1944
A-782FischerGeorgM9JewishCzechoslova-kiaMay 1944
A-781FischerJosefM9JewishCzechoslova-kiaMay 1944
A-27789FreiRozsiF14JewishHungary10 Jun. 1944
A-24977FriedlerBoleslawM13JewishPoland6 Aug. 1944
B-14058FuchsArpadM10JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-15981FürstErikaF13JewishYugoslavia21 May 1944
?GeigerLauraF12JewishPolandAugust 1944
A-13203GoldentalSandorM10JewishHungary5 Jun. 1944
A-13202GoldentalErnöM10JewishHungary5 Jun. 1944
A-7205GoldentalMankaF3JewishHungary5 Jun. 1944
A-27632GrinspanRuthF7 ½JewishPoland27 Jul. 1944
A-27633GrossmannPaulaF6JewishPoland27 Jul. 1944
A-26945GrossmannOlgaF6 ½JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
A-26946GrossmannV.J.F6 ½JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
A-26942GrünbaumAliceF11JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-12958GrünfeldM.F.14JewishRomaniaMay 1944
192812GunskyRichardM6Polish?12 Aug. 1944
?GutenbergV.J.F9JewishPolandOctober 1944
190691GutmannReneM6JewishCzechoslova-kiaMay 1944
A-17546HadlPaulM7JewishHungary11 Jun. 1944
A-17545HadlGyuriM7JewishHungary11 Jun. 1944
A-9754HadlEvaF13JewishHungary11 Jun. 1944
B-14095HajmanJ.M4JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
?HalpernGabrielM15?PolandJune 1944
B-14101HamburgerJuliusM6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-26959HechtEvaF2JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-5142Helenka?F2 ½Jewish??
A-27638HellsteinFellaF6JewishPoland27 Jul. 1944
A-7222HermannPiroskaF13JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-2723HermannIbolyaF13JewishHungary2 Nov. 1944
A-27681HerskovicMartaF14JewishSlovakia15 May 1944
?HochsteinPaulM5?PolandFebruary 1944
A-19999HochsteinS.D.M4 ¾JewishHungaryJuly 1944
A-26974HojmanEnkaF8 monthsJewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-6373HolländerAnnaF13JewishHungaryMay 1944
193985HutnikS.S.M13Polish?12 Oct. 1944
188930JakobsonHeinzM8JewishHollandJune 1944
?Jaksa-BykonskiHaniaF10Polish?12 Aug. 1944
B-14381Jung?M4JewishSlovakiaNovember 1944
?KaffVeraF15Block 25Czechoslova-kiaMay 1944
?KaffMiraF15Block 25Czechoslova-kiaMay 1944
188926KanelJohannM6JewishHolland6 Jun. 1944
A-27643KaplonIreneF14JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
192813KapustaH.J.M5Polish?12 Aug. 1944
192893KarpaH.J.M9Polish?12 Oct. 1944
B-14105KellerErnstM8JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-7213KleinAnnaF11JewishHungaryMid-June 1944
A-7214KleinJuditF11JewishHungaryMid-June 1944
A-6471KleinAgnesF14JewishHungaryMay 1944
?KleinGyorgyM15Bl. 18Hungary 
A-2459KleinmannJosefM4 ¾JewishCzechoslova-kiaMay 1944
A-19997KlügerPaulM9 ½JewishPoland23 Jul. 1944
B-14132KohnM.L.M6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-5139KohnKlaraF5JewishHungary12 May 1944
A-5138KohnE.K.F4JewishHungary12 May 1944
B-14156KrasnianskiIwanM10JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-26195KuflerYenaF10JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
85759KurskaKalinaF6PolishPoland13 Aug. 1944
B-7636LedererFranzM14JewishCzechoslova-kia14 Aug. 1944
B-14182LewingerPeterM5JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
?LiebermanTiborM15Block 18Hungary?
?LiechtensternKurtM15Block 20Czechoslova-kiaJune 1943
?LöblRobertM15Block 28HungaryJanuary 1944
A-12090LörincziA.A.M10JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-7059LörincziL.A.F10JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-5123Lustig-BrawerJuditF2JewishHungary22 May 1944
A-5121Lustig-BrawerA.A.F2JewishHungary22 May 1944
A.5131MalekJuditF14JewishHungaryMay 1944
A-7738MalekJakobM3JewishHungaryMay 1944
A-7737MalekEliasM3JewishHungaryMay 1944
?MalekJuditF15JewishHungaryMay 1944
?MalekSalomonM15JewishHungaryMay 1944
A-27165MangelGertrud.F12JewishHungary3 Nov. 1944
A-3638MarmorsteinValeriaF11JewishHungary20 May 1944
A-3637MarmorsteinMartaF11JewishHungary20 May 1944
?MaslowA.Ja.M Russian ?
A-9841MejerLaureF13JewishHungary17 May 1944
A-1386MejerMozesM13JewishHungary17 May 1944
183959MichukTollaM Russian ?
?ModianoSamoM15Block 18ItalyAugust 1944
77357MorosawTaissaF2 ½Russian April 1944
A-7064MosesMiriamF11JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-7063MosesEvaF11JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
?MuchaJeslavM9Polish August 1944
A-27063NeumannHeniaF13JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
B-14206NeumannGabriel J.M8JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
B-14213NeumannG.L.M9JewishHungary2 Nov. 1944
188931NoachHaskelM10JewishHolland6 Jun. 1944
78482NoachR.A.F13JewishHolland6 Jun. 1944
77370Pasankova (Michuk)SinaF3Russian??
A-1437PeterfreundJ.S.M12JewishHungaryJune 1944
A-3630PeterfreundA.S.F12JewishHungaryJune 1944
?PflanzenLinkaF5?PolandFebruary 44
183970PlawinskiAlikM4?Witebsk15 Apr. 1943
B-1153PritichyAlexM7JewishLodz/PolandAugust 1944
A-5602Rajngevic[69]C.M.F14JewishFrance28 May 1944
A-3039Reichmann[70]FriedelF9JewishBelgium21 May 1944
A-10440ReinitzGeorgM12JewishHungary28 May 1944
B-14245RochlitzAlfredM10JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
84831RonbachaDanutaF13Polish?13 Aug. 1944
A-7054RosenbaumRuthF10JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
A-7055RosenbaumJuditF10JewishHungary2 Jun. 1944
?RosenbergRuthF11JewishHungaryJune 1944
?RosenblumHanaF12 PolandAugust 1944
B-2784RosenwasserLeaF12JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-14232RosenwasserJosefM8JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-14820RosenzweigJurekM12JewishLodz/PolandAugust 1944
A-27087RukovicErikaF3JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-10SalomonSaroltaF9JewishHungary21 May 1944
A-11SalomonRozaliaF9JewishHungary21 May 1944
A-5128SattlerVeraF12JewishHungary17 May 1944
A-5129SattlerMagdaF12JewishHungaryMay 1944
A-9272SauerMargitF14JewishHungaryMid- June 1944

June 1944

179963SawojloA.I.M10 monthsRussian born in the camp
A-27153SchickEvaF13JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
81753SchlagerLauraF9JewishHollandJune 1944
188932SchlagerJ.D.M11JewishHollandJune 1944
B-14324SchlesingerPavelM6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-14325SchlesingerRobertM11JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
A-7254SchlesingerMarthaF12JewishHungary15 Jun. 1944
A-7255SchlesingerJudithF12JewishHungary15 Jun. 1944
?SchlesingerSidoniaF14 Hungary 
?SchuldenfreiMoritz (Mendel)M11Block 18BelgiumApril 1944
A-18951SchwarczVeraF13 ½JewishSlovakia16 Jun. 1944
 SchwartzTamasM12?Czechoslova-kiaAugust 1944
B-14295SchwarzFerencM11JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
?SchwarzIrenF12?HungaryMay 1944
?SchweidAndorM15Block 9Hungary?
?SelmanovicMorM14?HungaryMay 1944
77303SluschakovaWalaF3-4?WitebskApril 1944
A-27880SpiroDoraF9JewishPoland27 Jul. 1944
A-23221SpirovaFridaF9JewishSlovakia12 Nov. 1944
A-27712SteinJudithF14JewishHungaryMay 1944
B-14566SteinerJindrichM14JewishSlovakia30 Sep. 1944
?SteinerZdenekM15?Czechoslova-kiaSeptember 1943
?SteinerJiriM15?Czechoslova-kiaSeptember 1943
81769StockfischHarietteF3JewishHollandJune 1944
A-27126StraussGittaF10JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
A-27127StraussLillyF12JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
B-14272StraussD.J.M8JewishSlovakia4 Nov. 1944
?StrochJakob 15Block 28Holland?
A-6900TellerKatalinaF14 ¾JewishHungary20 May 1944
A-23493TraubHankaF5JewishCzechoslova-kiaJune 1944
A-23492TraubE.F5JewishCzechoslova-kiaJune 1944
188933Van GelderEddiM3JewishHollandJune 1944
188934ViskoperRobertM6JewishHollandJune 1944
?WeinbergerIreneF14?Czechoslova-kiaNovember 1944
?WeinheberBertaF15?Czechoslova-kiaNovember 1944
A-27202WeissM.E.F10JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-27197WeissMigrunF6JewishSlovakia2 Nov. 1944
B-14354WeissJuraiM7 monthsJewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-27199WeissheferB.E.F14 ¾JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-27201WeiszEva E.F13JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
A-27660WeiszElisabethF11JewishHungaryJuly 1944
?WeiszMartaF11?Czechoslova-kiaNovember 1944
?WeiszmannIbolyaF13?HungaryJune 1944
A-27208WinterErikaF13JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
B-14348WinterOttoM10JewishSlovakia3 Nov. 1944
?WinzorekBogasta 15Block 10Poland?
?WolkowitzRifkaF5?PolandAugust 1944
?WolkowitzFischelM8?PolandAugust 1944
B-14880Worstmann (Workman)GaborM14JewishHungary7 Jul. 1944
?WurmsJudaM15Block 19Holland?
B-14828ZelewskiSamuelM11JewishLodz/PolandAugust 1944
B-14827ZelewskiLeibM11JewishLodz/PolandAugust 1944
?ZelmanovitsMorM14Block 18Hungary?
A-27218ZiemlichovaAliceF13Polish?2 Nov. 1944
?ZuckerMariaF13?PolandAugust 1944
A-27772ZwischbergVeraF12JewishHungaryJuly 1944
Table 2 – List of Twins at Auschwitz
Registration numberFamily nameGiven nameDate of birth/ageDate of liberation
(L = Liberated)
A-348AbelesElisabeth19 Jul. 1932?
A-77AbelesPeter19 Jul. 1932?
78254AbrahamsonHelli10 years27 Jan. 1945
A-7739AdlerMano15 Feb. 193227 Jan. 1945
Z-5618AdlerKonrad8 Jan. 1936?
Z-5619AdlerAndreas8 Jan. 1936?
A-6029AdlerFanny15 Feb. 1932died at Auschwitz
A-26885AjzenbergJ.I.8 years27 Jan. 1945
A-5772Alter (Aeter)Sari??
B-5405AppelbaumEdek (Adolf)6 years27 Jan. 1945
B-5406AppelbaumMilek (Hilek)6 years27 Jan. 1945
A-1433Bach (Back)Isidor25 Jun. 192727 Jan. 1945
A-1434Bach (Back)Uscher25 Jun. 192727 Jan. 1945
B-14731BaschSamio11 Jul. 192927 Jan. 1945
B-14732BaschMorton11 Jul. 192927 Jan. 1945
?Bauer Sary15?
?BaumMiriam Shteinhoff?L
A-5105BaumErnst (Erno)18 Jan. 1929?
A-5342BaumMagda18 Jan. 1929?
A-7212BaumJudith31 May 193027 Jan. 1945
A-26857BeerPawlonna827 Jan. 1945
Z-2380Behrends (Berentz)Johann19 Apr. 1921?
Z-2381Behrends (Berentz)Frinke19 Apr. 1921?
A-25981BengerEva1327 Jan. 1945
B-2780BiermanEphraim1427 Jan. 1945
A-20851BinetMartha327 Jan. 1945
B-14005BinetGaszpar627 Jan. 1945
B-14006BinetUszn (Robert)627 Jan. 1945
?Blau (Eitan)Rachel?L
A-12080BleierErnö6 Feb. 193627 Jan. 1945
A-5103BleierTibor9 Jan. 1931L
A-5104BleierMiklos9 Jan. 1931…[71]
A-7199BleierEdith927 Jan. 1945
B-14615BleierIstvan1427 Jan. 1945
A-26847BlumVera1127 Jan. 1945
B-13979BlumPalko627 Jan. 1945
?BlyerYizchak Efrat?L
B-14003BraunPeter10 months27 Jan. 1945
A-14096BraunKalman31 May 193027 Jan. 1945
A-17456BrichtaAndreas5 Jan. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-17457BrichtaKarl5 Jan. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-17452BrodtAntol12 Mar. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-17453BrodtJózef12 Mar. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-14090BrownYehudith Karen31 May 193027 Jan. 1945
?Bryer(twin brother)?L
?BryerYehudith Mayer?L
76483Bucci[72]Alessandra7 years27 Jan. 1945
76484Bucci[73]Liliana7 years27 Jan. 1945
B-13986BurgerFranz6 years27 Jan. 1945
B-13987BurgerThomas11 years27 Jan. 1945
A-7264ChybikIlse14 years27 Jan. 1945
?CinskJurek6 years?
A-7057CzengeriLea6 Jun. 193727 Jan. 1945
A-7058CzengeriYehudith6 Jun. 193727 Jan. 1945
?CzukerIrena Shtronwasser?L
?CzukerLea Berkman?L
A-5132DavidMargit58 years27 Jan. 1945
?DeitchHana Faiger?L
?DeitchRache Markowitz?L
A-5135Demst (Dunst)Therese1927 Jan. 1945
A-5136Demst (Dunst)Lilly1927 Jan. 1945
A-9745GermanKatalin1427 Jan. 1945
A-9746GermanMartha1427 Jan. 1945
A-3628Deutzel (German)Ethel22?
A-3629Deutzel (German)Malvine22?
Z-4636DewüsMargot25 Feb. 1927?
Z-4637DewüsElfriede25 Feb. 1927?
A-26877DiamantEva1227 Jan. 1945
A-8737EcksteinRona (Ilona)827 Jan. 1945
A-8738EcksteinVera827 Jan. 1945
Z-2924EinackerChristian22 Nov. 1931?
Z-2925EinackerPaul22 Nov. 1931?
B-14706EpsteinH.M.14 ¾27 Jan. 1945
113336ErnstHermann12 Mar. 1910?
Z-5645ErnstKarl12 Mar. 1910?
A-2042FeingoldJakob5 Nov. 1927?
A-4891FeingoldRosa5 Nov. 1927?
A-12089FeketeVilmos727 Jan. 1945
A-7060FeketeIzabella727 Jan. 1945
A-7740FeldLudwik19 Mar. 190427 Jan. 1945
A-26919FeldbaumMarianne1327 Jan. 1945
A-781FischerJosef7 Jan. 193627 Jan. 1945
A-782FischerGeorg7 Jan. 193627 Jan. 1945
A-5717FogelIsidor13 May 1929?
A-5718FogelMano13 May 1929?
A-15675FrankfurtGeorg13 Oct. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-15676FrankfurtLaslo13 Oct. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-3102FrankovitzMorris?27 Jan. 1945
A-3103FrankovitzJacob?27 Jan. 1945
A-27789FreiRozsi1427 Jan. 1945
A-12081FriedmannJakob12 Oct. 192527 Jan. 1945
A-12082FriedmannMozes12 Oct. 192527 Jan. 1945
A-7202FriedmannOlga1227 Jan. 1945
A-7203FriedmannEwa1227 Jan. 1945
B-14058FuchsArpad1027 Jan. 1945
A-15981FürstErika1327 Jan. 1945
?FuxYona Lux?L
?GoldbergerLaura27 Feb. 1929?
A-2513GoldbergerJosef27 Feb. 192927 Jan. 1945
A-5119GoldbergerMargit27 Feb. 1929?
A-13203GoldentahlErnest16 Feb. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-13202GoldentalErnö1027 Jan. 1945
A-13203GoldentalSandor1027 Jan. 1945
A-7205GoldentalManka327 Jan. 1945
A-13202GoldenthalAleksander16 Feb. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-27632GrinspanRuth7 ½27 Jan. 1945
A-21945GrossmanOlga Solomon627 Jan. 1945
A-21946GrossmanVera Krieghel627 Jan. 1945
A-26945GrossmannOlga627 Jan. 1945
A-26946GrossmannVera627 Jan. 1945
A-27633GrossmannPaula627 Jan. 1945
A-2518GroszLajosz22 Nov. 1903?
A-2519GroszTibor22 Nov. 1903?
A-26942GrünbaumAlice1127 Jan. 1945
A-7200GrünbaumBerta1927 Jan. 1945
A-7201GrünbaumJolan1927 Jan. 1945
A-5719GrünbergerOscar9 Jun. 1925?
A-6030GrünbergerSara9 Jun. 1925?
A-12958GrünfeldM.1427 Jan. 1945
?GutenbergV.J.927 Jan. 1945
?GutmanMenahem (Menesel)?L
?Gutman(triplet sister)?L
169061GuttmanRene21 Dec. 193727 Jan. 1945
70917GuttmanIrene21 Dec. 193727 Jan. 1945
A-17545HadlGyuri727 Jan. 1945
A-17546HadlPaul727 Jan. 1945
A-9754HadlEva1327 Jan. 1945
A-17545Hadl (Hadel)Georg Heimler627 Jan. 1945
A-17546Hadl (Hadel)Paul Heimler627 Jan. 1945
B-14095HajmanJ.427 Jan. 1945
Z-5277HalonekDrachomie14 May 1936?
Z-5278HalonekAnna14 May 1936?
B-14101HamburgerJulius627 Jan. 1945
Z-4975HansteinPaul27 Jun. 1898?
B-10502HauptmannZoltan23 Oct. 193027 Jan. 1945
B-10503HauptmannJenö23 Oct. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-9747HavasAgnes21 Aug. 1927[74]
A-9748HavasJudith21 Aug. 1927[75]
A-26959HechtEva227 Jan. 1945
?HelbrunAnnetta4 Feb. 1924L
?HelbrunStephanie4 Feb. 1924L
A-5142Helenka?2 ½27 Jan. 1945
148578HellerPaul1 Jul. 1927?
148580HellerPeter1 Jul. 192727 Jan. 1945
A-27638HellsteinFella627 Jan. 1945
A-1435HerbachAndreas3 Mar. 1925?
A-1436HerbachLadislaus3 Mar. 1925[76]
?HermannCzvi Weisel?L
A-7222HermannPiroska1227 Jan. 1945
A-7223HermannIbolya1227 Jan. 1945
A-27681HerskovicMarta1427 Jan. 1945
A-5079HerskowiczGizela (Pearle)2327 Jan. 1945
A-5080HerskowiczHelena2327 Jan. 1945
A-19999HochsteinS.D.4 ¾27 Jan. 1945
A-5197HofertAlfred22 May 1933L
A-7061HoffmanOlga2027 Jan. 1945
A-7062HoffmanIda2027 Jan. 1945[77]
A-26974HojmanEnka8 months27 Jan. 1945
A-5106Holfert (Holpert)Eugen (Jenö)22 May 1933?
A-5107Holfert (Szechter)Alfred22 May 193327 Jan. 1945
A-6373HolländerAnna1327 Jan. 1945
188930JakobsonHeinz827 Jan. 1945
B-14381Jung?427 Jan. 1945
170377KafkaOtto5 Jan. 1901?
A-7047Kafr (Kaff)Mira1427 Jan. 1945
A-7048Kafr (Kaff)Vera1427 Jan. 1945
188926KanelJohann627 Jan. 1945
A-27643KaplonIrene1427 Jan. 1945
A-7221Kastner (Singer) Klara28?
A-5720KatzAbraham193227 Jan. 1945
B-14105KellerErnst827 Jan. 1945
A-7049Keppes (Köpes)Ewa19L
A-7050Keppes (Köpes)Teresa19L
170450KestrFriedrich26 Oct. 1921?
170451KestrHans26 Oct. 1921?
A-8739Kirz (Kurz)Lilly22 Feb. 190027 Jan. 1945[78]
A-8740Kirz (Kurz)Edith22 Feb. 1900L
A-14319KissAndre5 Oct. 1928?
A-14320KissLaszlo5 Oct. 1928?
?Klein(twin brother)?L
A-2511KleinLaslo31 Jan. 1931?
A-2512KleinGyula31 Jan. 1931?
A-5331KleinFerenz7 Jun. 193227 Jan. 1945
A-5332KleinOtto7 Jun. 193227 Jan. 1945
A-6471KleinAgnes1427 Jan. 1945
A-7213KleinAnna927 Jan. 1945
A-7214KleinJudith927 Jan. 1945
A-4931KleinmanMartha14 Apr. 194027 Jan. 1945
A-2459KleinmannJosef14 Apr. 194027 Jan. 1945
A-19997KlügerPaul9 ½27 Jan. 1945
A-5138KohnEwa15 Mar. 194027 Jan. 1945
A-5139KohnKlara15 Mar. 194027 Jan. 1945
B-14132KohnM.L.627 Jan. 1945
80912KohnsteinEmilie12 Sep. 192727 Jan. 1945
80913KohnsteinGizela12 Sep. 192727 Jan. 1945
B-14156KrasnianskiIwan1027 Jan. 1945
73492Kraub (Traub)Ewa5 Jun. 193927 Jan. 1945
73493Kraub (Traub)Hanka5 Jun. 193927 Jan. 1945
Z-1773KrausElisabeth17 Sep. 1923?
Z-1774KrausAnna17 Sep. 1923?
Z-2660Kreutz (Krentz)Elise19 Oct. 1876?
Z-2661Kreutz (Krentz)Johanna19 Oct. 1876?
A-26195KuflerYena1027 Jan. 1945
A-14321KühnGyorgy23 Jan. 193227 Jan. 1945
A-14322KühnIstwan17 Dec. 193227 Jan. 1945
85759KurskaKalina627 Jan. 1945
A-7051LabowiczLili1527 Jan. 1945
A-7052LabowiczEwa1527 Jan. 1945
A-27700LaksJona28 Apr. 1928[79]
A-14325LauferJosef12 Aug. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-14326LauferIstwan (Stefan)12 Aug. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-5722LazarovitzYizchak?27 Jan. 1945
A-6033LazarovitzGizela1 Jul. 192927 Jan. 1945
A-5722LazarowiczIsidor1 Jul. 1929?
170574LebenhartEugen21 Feb. 1924?
B-7636LedererFranz1427 Jan. 1945
A-342LeipenErvin23 May 1937?
A-343LeipenPaul23 May 1937?
?LevingerRachel Zehira?L
?LevinsteinLili Birkenfeld?L
B-14182LewingerPeter527 Jan. 1945
A-12083LipschitzErno16 Jul. 1927?
A-12084LipschitzZoltan16 Jul. 1927?
?LipshitzZeipora Milstein?L
A-12090LörenziAndreas1027 Jan. 1945
A-7059LörenziLea1027 Jan. 1945
?LövyMiriam4 Jun. 192827 Jan. 1945
A-1295LövyLeopold4 Jun. 192827 Jan. 1945
A-14097Lövy (Levy)Andor??
A-14093LöwensteinHerman25 Jun. 1930?
?Lowy (Lovy)Miriam6 Apr. 192827 Jan. 1945
A-14323LustigGyorgy (Georg)13 Dec. 192627 Jan. 1945
A-14324LustigMartin13 Dec. 192627 Jan. 1945
A-5121Lustig-Brauer (Braver)Ewa22 Dec. 1942[80]
A-5122Lustig-Brauer (Braver)Agnes22 Dec. 194227 Jan. 1945
A-5123Lustig-Brauer (Braver)Judith22 Dec. 194227 Jan. 1945
A-5131MalekYehudith Feig1427 Jan. 1945
A-7736MalekSalomon1427 Jan. 1945
A-7737MalekElias327 Jan. 1945
A-7738MalekJacob327 Jan. 1945
A-27165MangelG.L.1227 Jan. 1945
A-1386Mayer (Meier)Moses193127 Jan. 1945
A-3841Mayer (Meier)Laura193127 Jan. 1945
A-3637MermelsteinMarta1127 Jan. 1945
A-3638MermelsteinWaleria1127 Jan. 1945
?MintzRivka Vered?L
A-7063MosesEva1127 Jan. 1945
A-7064MosesMiriam1127 Jan. 1945
A-7063MozesEva31 Jan. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-7064MozesMiriam31 Jan. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-27063NeumannHenia1327 Jan. 1945
B-14206NeumannGabriel J.827 Jan. 1945
B-14213NeumannG.L.927 Jan. 1945
A-7259NeuschlössJudith17 Dec. 1927?
A-14327NeuschlüssGabor17 Dec. 1927?
188931NoachHaskel1027 Jan. 1945
78482NoachR.A.1327 Jan. 1945
A-1719NochmannAlbert22 Apr. 1885?
A-1720NochmannFritz22 Apr. 1885?
A-1766OppenheimerJaroslaus26 Mar. 1920?
A-1767OppenheimerSidonius26 Mar. 1920?
A-1442Ories (Ovicz)Abraham26 Sep. 190327 Jan. 1945
A-1443Ories (Ovicz)Markus16 Jul. 190927 Jan. 1945
A-1444Ories (Ovicz)Sandor127 Jan. 1945
A-5089Ovicz (Edenburg)Erika (Frieda)?27 Jan. 1945
A-5087Ovicz (Owicz)Piroska?27 Jan. 1945
A-5088Ovicz (Owicz)Rozsi (Rozhinka)?27 Jan. 1945
A-5090Ovicz (Owicz)Franciska?27 Jan. 1945
A-5092Ovicz (Owicz)Seren (Sara)?27 Jan. 1945
A-5093Ovicz (Owicz)Lina (Leah)?27 Jan. 1945
A-5091Ovicz-MiskovitzElisabeth?27 Jan. 1945
A-7206Paneth (Pacuta)Ewa15L
A-7207Paneth (Pacuta)Sara15L
A-1437PeterfreundJ.S.1227 Jan. 1945
A-3630PeterfreundAgnes12 Nov. 193227 Jan. 1945
A-1437PeterfreundIstwan12 Nov. 193227 Jan. 1945
Z-5751PohlAlfred6 Nov. 1931?
Z-5752PohlFritz6 Nov. 1931?
A-2514PollackAbraham21 Nov. 1924[82]
A-2515PollackJacob21 Nov. 1924[83]
A-5417PollakRozsi11 Mar. 1927[84]
B-1153PritichyAlex727 Jan. 1945
A-5602RajngevicC.M.1427 Jan. 1945
A-10508ReichenbergEfraim (Ernst)11 Feb. 192827 Jan. 1945
B-10507ReichenbergLaslo11 Feb. 1928L
A-3039ReichmannFriedel927 Jan. 1945
A-10440ReinitzGeorg1227 Jan. 1945
B-14245RochlitzAlfred1027 Jan. 1945
A-7054RosenbaumRuth25 Mar. 193427 Jan. 1945[85]
A-7055RosenbaumJudith25 Mar. 193427 Jan. 1945
B-14232RosenwasserJosef827 Jan. 1945
B-2784RosenwasserLea1227 Jan. 1945
B-14820RosenzweigJurek1227 Jan. 1945
A-5415RothPiroska3 Nov. 1927[86]
A-5416RothHermine3 Nov. 1927[87]
A-27087RukovicErika327 Jan. 1945
?Sainer (Novomkova)Hana?L
A-10SalamonCharlotte Malte927 Jan. 1945
A-11SalamonRosa927 Jan. 1945
A-5723SalomonLipot12 Apr. 1924…
A-5724SalomonDezö12 Apr. 1924…
A-5725SalomonSandor11 May 193127 Jan. 1945
A-5726SalomonTibor11 May 193127 Jan. 1945
147689SalusGeorg10 Mar. 1924?
147690SalusLadislaus10 Mar. 1924?
A-14094SanderJosef6 Oct. 1931L
A-7208SanderRozsi6 Oct. 1931L
?SattlerGardony (Magda)1227 Jan. 1945
A-5128SattlerVera12 27 Jan. 1945
A-5129SattlerMagda1227 Jan. 1945
A-9271SauerSara1427 Jan. 1945
A-9272SauerMargit1427 Jan. 1945
A-27153SchickEva1327 Jan. 1945
188932SchlagerJ.D.1127 Jan. 1945
81753SchlagerLaura927 Jan. 1945
?SchlesingerHarry3 Sep. 192927 Jan. 1945
?Schlesinger(twin sister)?died at Au.
A-5773SchlesingerSidonia9 Mar. 192927 Jan. 1945
A-7254SchlesingerMartha1227 Jan. 1945
A-7255SchlesingerJudith1227 Jan. 1945 + 16 Mar.45[90]
A-7732SchlesingerHerman9 Mar. 1929?
B-14324SchlesingerPavel627 Jan. 1945
B-14325SchlesingerRobert1127 Jan. 1945
170799SchönRichard22 May 1906?
170800SchönRobert22 May 1906?
?SchuldenfreiMoritz (Mendel)11?
A-18951SchwarczVera13 ½27 Jan. 1945
?SchwartzYakov?27 Jan. 1945
A-14095SchwarzKalman8 Apr. 193227 Jan. 1945
A-5109SchwarzEugen (Jenö)13 Apr. 1915?
A-5343SchwarzElisabeth8 Apr. 1932?
A-5727SchwarzAladar10 Jan. 1921?
A-5728SchwarzIgnatz10 Jan. 1921?
A-7730SchwarzJosef13 Apr. 1925?
A-7731SchwarzAdolf13 Apr. 1925?
B-14295SchwarzFerenc1127 Jan. 1945
A-792SeilerSarah5 Oct. 194027 Jan. 1945
A-793SeilerHannah5 Oct. 1940[92]
169094SeinerMilan16 Nov. 1933?
A-1199SeligsohnArthur22 Jan. 1889?
A-7221Singer (Sinje)Klara28 years?
A-1439SlomowiczMarkus18 Apr. 1925?
A-1440SlomowiczJosef28 Jan. 1931?
A-1441SlomowiczIdel (Juda)26 Jun. 1933?
A-2517SlomowiczLazar Lajoz8 May 192627 Jan. 1945
A-1438Slomowicz (Slomovitz)Simon19 Dec. 1897?
A-2516Slomowiecz (Slomowicz)Salomon8 May 192627 Jan. 1945
?SolomonShaul Almog?L
?SolomonSlomo Almog?L
A-1SolomonRosalia927 Jan. 1945
A-17454SomogyiPeter14 Apr. 193527 Jan. 1945
A-17455SomogyiTomas14 Apr. 193527 Jan. 1945
?SpiegelMagda Zalikovich5 Jan. 191527 Jan. 1945
A-7729SpiegelErnst Czvi5 Jan. 191527 Jan. 1945
A-27880SpirovaDora927 Jan. 1945
A-14328StadlerAndor10 Jun. 1929?
A-7258StadlerVera10 Jun. 1929?
A-27712SteinJudith1427 Jan. 1945
147742SteinerZdenek20 May 192927 Jan. 1945
147743SteinerGeorg20 May 192927 Jan. 1945
B-10504SteinerEndre9 Jun. 1929?
B-10505SteinerZoltan9 Jun. 1929?
B-14566SteinerJindrich1427 Jan. 1945
A-8272SternLea1427 Jan. 1945
A-8273SternHojnol1427 Jan. 1945
81769StockfischHariette327 Jan. 1945
147673StolzZdenek21 Aug. 1921?
A-60Storch (Stroch) ??
A-9752Storch (Weiss)Olga30L
A-27126StraussGitta1027 Jan. 1945
A-27127StraussLilly1227 Jan. 1945
B-14272StraussD.J.827 Jan. 1945
168786SüsserFritz21 Apr. 1904[93]
170896SüsserHans21 Apr. 1904[94]
A-14094SzandorJosef (Henryk)10 Jun. 193127 Jan. 1945
A-2507TaubGeorg18 Feb. 1933[95]
A-2508TaubImre18 Feb. 1933[96]
A-6900TellerK.J.14 ¾27 Jan. 1945
A-3100TeslerHermann193127 Jan. 1945
A-3101TeslerUszer193127 Jan. 1945
A-23492TraubE.527 Jan. 1945
A-23493TraubHanka527 Jan. 1945
188933Van GelderEddi327 Jan. 1945
?VigozckaRachel Vachtel?L
?VigozckaSarah Lushek?L
188934ViskoperRobert627 Jan. 1945
?Vissan(twin brother)?[97]
?VissanYuppy Yan?L
A-7046WassermanGisella1627 Jan. 1945
A-7045WassermannFrieda1627 Jan. 1945
?WeissJonathan Bandy?L
?WeissMayer (Bela)?L
A-27197WeissMigrun627 Jan. 1945
A-27202WeissM.E.1027 Jan. 1945
A-3634WeissEdith192627 Jan. 1945
A-3635WeissPiroska192627 Jan. 1945
A-5554WeissLili14 Nov. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-6026WeissEwa10 Aug. 192227 Jan. 1945
A-6027WeissVera10 Aug. 192227 Jan. 1945
B-14354WeissJurai7 months27 Jan. 1945
A-27199WeissheferB.E.14 ¾27 Jan. 1945
A-12085WeiszBela8 Nov. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-12086WeiszAndor (Andre)8 Nov. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-2509WeiszHermann3 May 1926?
A-2510WeiszLajosz3 May 1926?
A-27201WeiszEva E.1327 Jan. 1945
A-27660WeiszElisabeth1127 Jan. 1945
A-5108Weisz (Weiss)Sandor1 Feb. 1930?
A-2520WieselHermann14 Feb. 193027 Jan. 1945
A-2521WieselSiegmund14 Feb. 1930?
A-27208WinterErika1327 Jan. 1945
B-14348WinterOtto1027 Jan. 1945
186644WittenbergImre2 Jun. 1925?
B-14880Worstmann (Workman)Gabor1427 Jan. 1945
?Zawer Miri Sheinberger?L
?ZawerSarah Tigherman?L
B-14827ZelewskiLeib1227 Jan. 1945
B-14828ZelewskiSamuel1227 Jan. 1945
A-3102ZelmanowitzMor7 Jun. 193127 Jan. 1945
A-5419ZelmanowitzEva7 Jun. 193127 Jan. 1945
A-27772ZwischbergVera1227 Jan. 1945

AGK:Archiwum Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Archives of the Central Commission for the Investigation of Crimes against the Polish People – National Memorial), Warsaw
APMO:Archiwum Państwowego Muzeum Oświęcim-Brzezinka (Archives of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum)
GARF:Gosudarstvenni Archiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii (State Archives of the Russian Federation, Moscow)
RGVA:Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennii Vojennii Archiv (Russian State Military Archives), Moscow


Translated by Carlos W. Porter. Article previously published under the title Il dottor Mengele e i gemelli di Auschwitz. Effepi, Genoa, 2008.

[1]Hefte von Auschwitz. Verlag des Staatliches Auschwitz-Museum, no. 20, 1997, pp. 369-455.
[2]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, in Hefte von Auschwitz, p. 376.
[3]Ibid, p. 381.
[5]Comité international de la Croix-Rouge. Documents sur l’activité du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge en faveur des civils détenus dans les camps de concentration en Allemagne (1939-1945). Second edition, Geneva, 1946, pp. 91-92.
[6]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, op. cit., p. 389.
[7]Ibid, p. 379.
[8]AAVV, Noma (cancrum oris): questions and answers, in: http://www.munksgaard.dk/pdf/117pdf.nsf/all/521440/$FILE/odi0050211.pdf
[9]Th. Grotus, J. Parcer, «EDV-gestützte Auswertung der Sterbeeinträge», in: Sterbebücher von Auschwitz. Published by the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. K.G.Saur. Munich, New Providence, London, Paris, 1995, p. 248.
[10]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, op. cit., p. 379.
[11]Ibid, p. 380.
[12]Ibid, p. 379.
[13]Ibid, p. 390.
[14]Ibid, p. 396.
[15]Ibid, p. 397.
[16]Ibid, p. 390.
[17]Ibid, p. 403.
[18]Ibid, p. 382.
[19]Ibid, p. 387.
[20]APMO, D-AuI-3/1; D-AuII-3a/16; D-AuII-3a/25-49.
[21]H. Kubica, «Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau», op. cit., p. 404.
[22]G.L. Posner, J. Ware, Mengele. The Complete Story (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986).
[23]R.J. Lifton, I medici nazisti. La psicologia del genocidio. Rizzoli, Milan, 1988, pp. 338-340, 456-457, 467, 469, 471, 475, 478-479, 482, 492, 595.
[24]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, op. cit., p. 385.
[25]Ibid, pp. 378, 384, 404, 405 e 408.
[26]M. Nyiszli, Medico ad Auschwitz. Longanesi, Milano, 1977, p. 51.
[27]“An die internationale Öffentlichkeit”, Auschwitz, den 4. März 1945. GARF, 7021-108-46, p. 11, with handwritten signature of B. Epstein.
[28]Terezínská pamĕtní kniha. Terezínská Iniciativa, Melantrich, 1995, vol. I, p. 333.
[29]G.L. Posner, J. Ware, Mengele. The complete story, op. cit., p. 329.
[30]See the brief biography on http://lastexpression.northwestern.edu/Bios/bio_gottliebova_top.html .
[31]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau», op. cit., p. 429.
[32]May be consulted at: http://www.candles-museum.com/Twinlist.htm
[33]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, op. cit., pp. 437-455.
[34]L. Picciotto Fargion, Il libro della memoria. Gli Ebrei deportati dall'Italia (1943-1945). Mursia Editore, Turin, 1995, p. 157.
[35]Ibid, p. 266.
[36]Ibid, p. 217.
[37]Arbeitseinsatz für den 16. Januar 1945. RGVA, 502-1-67, p. 17a.
[38]See table -
[39]GARF, 7021-108-23.
[40]See table 2.
[41]H. Kubica, „Dr. Mengele und seine Verbrechen im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau“, op. cit., p. 442, 449, 451.
[42]Z. Zofka, „Der KZ-Arzt Mengele zur Typologie eines NS-Verbrechers“, in: Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte Vol. 34, No. 2, (1986) pp. 245-267.
[43]The reference to the witnesses who appeared in Mengele’s trial held in absentia in February 1985 in Jerusalem.
[44]Z. Zofka, „Der KZ-Arzt Mengele zur Typologie eines NS-Verbrechers“, op. cit., pp. 246-247.
[45]Ibid, pp.259-260.
[46]Ibid, p. 260.
[47]Ibid, p. 247.
[48]Ibid, p. 257, 258, 260, 262, 263.
[49]Nyiszli, Miklos, I Was Dr. Mengele’s Assistant. Oswiecim, , 2001 (reprint)
[51]Sugarco Edizioni, Milan, 1985.
[52]“Medico ad Auschwitz”: Anatomia di un falso. La Sfinge, Parma, 1988.
[53]Let us summarise what I wrote in La soluzione finale. problemi e polemiche. Edizioni di Ar, Padua, 1991, pp. 200-207 (“The Problem of the False Testimonies”) and in the article “Vulgärer Berufsbetrüger” [“Just a Common  Swindler”] , in: Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung, year 6, no. 2, June 2002, pp. 231-232.
[54]Processo Höss, volume 11, pp. 47-48.
[55]See, in this regard, my study Il numero dei morti di Auschwitz. Vecchie e nuove imposture. I Quaderni di Auschwitz,1. Effepi Editore, Genoa, 2004.
[56]The coke-fired ovens had to be shut down once per day to clean the fuel slag off the grills on the gas generators.
[57]See, in this regard, my article „Flammen und Rauch aus Krematoriumskaminen“ in: Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung, year 7, Nos. 3 & 4, December 2003, pp. 386-391.
[58]Chlorine is about 2.4 times the density of air at 25°C.
[59]Hydrogen cyanide is about 0.9 times the density of air at 30°C.
[60]The Holocaust historian Georges Wellers has written: “In other words, hydrocyanic acid vapours are lighter than air and therefore rise in the atmosphere”. G. Wellers, „Die zwei Giftgase“ (“The Two Poison Gases”), in: Nationalsozialistiche Massentötungen durch Giftgas. Eine Dokumentation. By Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl et al, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1983, p. 283.
[61]See, in this regard, my study Auschwitz: un caso di plagio. Edizioni La Sfinge, Parma, 1986.
[62]G. Wellers, „Die zwei Giftgase“ (“The Two Poisonous Gases”), in: Nationalsozialistiche Massentötungen durch Giftgas. Eine Dokumentation. By Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl et al. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1983, p. 283.
[63]M. Nyiszli, Dr. Mengele boncolóorvosa voltam az auschwitz-i krematóriumban, op. cit., p. 6.
[64]Charles D. Provan , „Miklos Nyiszli und sein Auschwitz-Buch in neuem Licht», in: Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung, year 6, no. 1, April 2002, p. 44.
[65]Trial of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law n° 10, volumes VII and VIII. Nurernberg, October 1946-April 1949.
[66]GARF, 7021-108-23, pp. 179-198 e 200-217.
[67]Bucci Tatiana Liliana.
[68]Bucci Alessandra.
[69]Rajngevic Cecilie, born on 22 Jan. 1931. Le mémorial de la déportation des Juifs de France. Edited and published by Beate and Serge Klarsfeld, Paris, 1978, transport no.74 of 20 May 1944.
[70]Reichmann Friedel,born on 16 Jun. 1935. S. Klarsfeld, M. Steinberg, Mémorial de la déportation des Juifs de Belgique. The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, New York, 1994, p. 435, transport XXV of 19 May 1944.
[71]“Died at the camp as a result of experiments performed.”
[72]Bucci Alessandra.
[73]Bucci Tatiana Liliana.
[74]Evacuated to Germany in November 1944, liberated there on 3 or 4 May 1945.
[75]Evacuated to Germania in November 1944, liberated there on 3 or 4 May 1945.
[76]Died on the evacuation transport on 27 January 1945 in Czechoslovakian territory.
[77]Died after the liberation.
[78]Died on 3 March 1945.
[79]Evacuated to Ravensbrück, liberated near Lipsia.
[80]Died in Auschwitz concentration camp.
[81]Died in the camp on 26 August 1944.
[82]Evacuated to Buchenwald.
[83]Evacuated to Buchenwald, died on 11 March 1945.
[84]Transferred to Buchenwald in October 1944.
[85]Died on 14 Mar. 1945.
[86]Transferred to Buchenwald in November 1944.
[87]Transferred to Buchenwald in November 1944.
[88]“Died in the camp as a result of the experiments performed on him.”
[89]“Died in the camp as a result of the experiments performed on her.”
[90]Died on 16 Mar.1945.
[91]Died at Auschwitz.
[92]Died at Auschwitz.
[93]In 1945 to Gross-Rosen concentration camp, then evacuated to Dachau concentration camp.
[94]In 1945 to Gross-Rosen concentration camp, then evacuated to Dachau concentration camp.
[95]In 1945 evacuated to Buchenwald concentration camp.
[96]In 1945 evacuated to Buchenwald concentration camp.
[97]Died at Auschwitz.

Additional information about this document

Author(s) Carlo Mattogno
Title Dr. Mengele's "Medical Experiments" on Twins in the Birkenau Gypsy Camp
Sources Inconvenient History, 5(4) (2013), http://inconvenienthistory.com/archive/2013/volume_5/number_4/dr_mengele...
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Dates published: 2013-12-01, first posted on CODOH: Feb. 19, 2014, 6 p.m., last revision: n/a
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